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On fresh-saline groundwater in deltaic areas

Introduction

Salinisation causes problems for farmers, water managers and nature in many coastal areas of the world. Deltares has in-house databases, numerical modelling techniques, monitoring tools and the knowledge to thoroughly investigate salinisation issues and to implement innovative solutions for a robust climate proof fresh water supply in the coastal zone.

Threats to fresh water resources

Permanent groundwater drainage keeps the polder areas sustainable in a large part of The Netherlands accelerate due to the anticipated sea level rise, climate change, future land subsidence and especially due to human factors like groundwater extraction and lowering of differentiated polder water levels. The processes described here for the Dutch situation prevail in many other deltas and coastal areas. Concluding, not taking any mitigation and/or adaptation measures will lead to a world-wide increase of salinisation.

Focus on regional and local processes

Deltares researchers investigate the processes of fresh, brackish and saline groundwater on different scales. On a regional scale, the effects of climate change, land, and water use change and the combined effects of preventive measures on groundwater salinisation are studied. Other studies give answers on how groundwater concentration changes affect surface water quality. On a local scale, the dynamics of fresh rainwater lenses on saline groundwater as a result of natural or artificial recharge are studied. These lenses allow agriculture where shallow groundwater is very saline. Other research topics are preferential groundwater flow via sandy layers and boils that connect deep saline aquifers with shallow aquifers and with fresh surface water bodies. These preferential flow paths largely contribute to the salinisation of Dutch low-lying areas. Our knowledge is not specific for the Netherlands and can be applied in similar deltaic areas around the world.

Solutions of salinisation problems

Deltares has the knowledge and expertise to study processes in combined fresh and saline groundwater systems. We develop and apply monitoring tools and techniques like the T-EC probe, EM-Slimflex and other online real-time measurement techniques. Moreover, Deltares has the modelling experience and the numeric compute codes (like MOCDENS3D/SEAWAT) at its disposal to simulate variable-density groundwater flow and coupled solute transport. Deltares is engaged in the design of specific measures needed for salinisation prevention and adaptation and for saline aquifer management. We have a long professional track record on groundwater salinisation studies built up during numerous relevant projects worldwide.

 

Leaflet

Fresh-saline groundwater in deltaic and coastal areas

More Information

Dr.ir. Gualbert Oude Essink
T +31 (0)6 30550408
gualbert dot oudeessink at deltares dot nl



Project title

year

fresh water supply

climate change

model

monitoring

solutions

international

national

regional

local

Knowledge for Climate

Salinisation Zeeland

2006-2012

 

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

Fresh-saline study Zuid-Holland

2004-2008

 

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

Climate Proof Fresh Water Supply

2010-2014

X

X

 

X

X

 

 

X

X

X

NHI fresh-salt

2007-2012

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

CliWat

2008-2012

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

GO-FRESH: Measures local freshwater supply

2012-2013

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

 

X

Airborne EM and numerical modelling

2010-

 

 

X

X

 

X

 

X

X

 

Flevoland

2007

 

 

X

X

 

 

 

X

X

 

Local phenomena

2006-2012

 

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

X

NatureCoast

2013-2016

 

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

X

 

Saline seepage in deltaic areas

2010-2014

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

SWIBANGLA Managing saltwater intrusion impacts in Bangladesh

2013-2014

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

 

X

 

Articles

De Lange, W.J., Prinsen, G.F., Hoogewoud, J.C., Veldhuizen, A., Verkaik, J., Oude Essink, G.H.P., van Walsum, P.E.V., Delsman, J.R., Hunink, J.C., Massop, H.T.L., Kroon, T., 2014. An operational, multi-scale, multi-model system for consensus-based, integrated water management and policy analysis: The Netherlands Hydrological Instrument. Environmental Modelling & Software 59, 98–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.05.009
download

Pauw, P.S., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Leijnse, A., Vandenbohede, A., Groen, J., van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M. 2014. Regional scale impact of tidal forcing on groundwater flow in unconfined coastal aquifers, J. Hydrology, 517, 269–283, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.042
download

Delsman, J.R., Hu-a-ng, K.R.M., Vos, P.C., De Louw, P.G.B., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Stuyfzand, P.J. and Bierkens, M.F.P. 2013, Palaeo-modeling of coastal salt water intrusion during the Holocene: an application to the Netherlands, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 10, 13707–13742
link to HESSD

De Louw, P.G.B., Eeman, S., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Vermue, E., Post, V.E.A. 2013. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field. J. Hydrology, 501, 133-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.07.026
link to paper

Delsman, J., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Beven, K.J., Stuyfzand, P.J. 2013. Uncertainty estimation of end-member mixing using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE), applied in a lowland catchment, Water Resour. Res., http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20341.
download

De Louw, P.G.B., Vandenbohede, A., Werner, A.D., Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2013. Natural saltwater upconing by preferential groundwater discharge through boils. J. Hydrol., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.03.025.
download

Faneca Sànchez, M., Gunnink, J., van Baaren, E.S., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Elderhorst, W., de Louw, P.G.B., Siemon, B., Auken, E. 2012. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne Electro Magnetic measurements, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 4499-4516, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-4499-2012.
link to HESS

Pauw, P.S., Louw, P.G.B., de, Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2012. Groundwater salinization in the Wadden Sea area of the Netherlands; quantifying the effects of climate change, sea level rise and anthropogenic interferences, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 91-3, 373-383.
link to NJG

Harbo, M.S., Pedersen, J. Johnsen., R. and Petersen, K. 2012. (Eds) The CLIWAT handbook: Groundwater in a future climate, www.cliwat.eu. 184 p.
CLIWAT Handbook

Oude Essink, G.H.P. and Kooi, H. 2012. Land-subsidence and sea-level rise threaten fresh water resources in the coastal groundwater system of the Rijnland water board, The Netherlands, p. 227-248, Chapter 13 in: Climate Change Effects on Groundwater Resources: A Global Synthesis of Findings and Recommendations, Treidel, H., Martin-Bordes, J.L. and Gurdak, J.J. (Eds), 401 p.
link to Book

Louw, P.G.B., de, Eeman, S., Siemon, B., Voortman, B.R., Gunnink, J., van Baaren, E.S., and Oude Essink, G.H.P., 2011, Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 3659-3678.
link to HESS

Louw, P.G.B., de, van der Velde, Y., and van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M. 2011. Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2101-2117
link to HESS

Louw, P.G.B., de, Oude Essink, G.H.P., Stuyfzand, P.J., Zee, van der, S.E.A.T.M. 2010. Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, The Netherlands, J. Hydrol. 394, 494-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.10.009
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P., E.S. van Baaren, and P.G.B. de Louw. 2010. Effects of climate change on coastal groundwater systems: A modeling study in the Netherlands, Water Resour. Res., 46, W00F04, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008719.
download

Goes, B.J.M., Oude Essink, G.H.P., Vernes, R.W. and Sergi, F. 2009. Estimating the depth of fresh and brackish groundwater in a predominantly saline region using geophysical and hydrological methods, Zeeland, the Netherlands, Near Surface Geophysics 401-412.
download

Giambastiani, B.M.S., Antonellini, M., Oude Essink, G.H.P. and Stuurman, R.J. 2007. Saltwater intrusion and water management in the unconfined coastal aquifer of Ravenna (Italy): a numerical model, J. of Hydrol. (340), 1-2, 91-104.
download

De Louw, P. and Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2006. Salinisation of the Northern coastal area of the Netherlands due to land subsidence and sea level rise. In: Jun Xu, Y. and Singh, V.P. (Eds.): Coastal Environmental and Water Quality, AIH Annual Meeting & International Conference, Challenges in Coastal Hydrology and Water Quality, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 167-179.
download

Langevin, C.D., G.H.P. Oude Essink, Panday, S., Bakker, M., Prommer, H., Swain, E.D., Jones, W., Beach, M. and Barcelo, M. 2003. MODFLOW-Based Tools for Simulation of Variable-Density Groundwater Flow. In: Coastal Aquifer Management-Monitoring, Modeling and Case Studies. A.H.-D. Cheng and D. Ouazar, CRC Press, 30-76.
download draft

Bakker, M., Oude Essink, G.H.P. and Langevin, C.D. 2004. The rotating movement of three immiscible fluids, J. of Hydrol. (287), 270-278.
download

Bouw, L. and Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2003. Development of a freshwater lens in the inverted Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore, J. of Geochemical Exploration 78-79: 321-325.
download

Bouw, L. and Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2003. Fluid flow during Late Cretaceous inversion of the northern Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands J. of Geosciences 82 (1): 55-69.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2001. Salt Water Intrusion in a Three-dimensional Groundwater System in The Netherlands: a Numerical Study, Transport in Porous Media 43(1): 137-158.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2001. Improving fresh groundwater supply - problems and solutions. Ocean & Coastal Management 44: 429-449.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2001. Saltwater intrusion in 3D large-scale aquifers: a Dutch case, Phys. & Chem. of the Earth 26(4): 337-344.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 2001. Density dependent groundwater flow at the island of Texel, The Netherlands. Proc. 16th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, Miedzyzdroje-Wolin Island, Poland: 47-54.
download

Klein, R.J.T., R.J. Nicholls, G.H.P. Oude Essink, N. Minura and R.A. Warrick. 1998. Coastal Zones (Chapter 7). Unites Nations Environmental Programme, in UNEP Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessments and Adaptation Strategies,. J.F. Feenstra, I. Burton, J.B. Smith and R.S.J. Tol (Eds), CRC Press, 464 p.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 1998. MOC3D adapted to simulate 3D density-dependent groundwater flow. In: Proc.MODFLOW'98 Conference, October 4-8, 1998, Golden, Colorado, USA, Vol. I, 291-303.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. 1996. Impact of sea level rise on groundwater flow regimes. A sensitivity analysis for the Netherlands. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology. Delft Studies in Integrated Water Management: no. 7 ISBN 90-407-1330-8. 428 p.
download

Oude Essink, G.H.P. Boekelman, R.H., 1996. Problems with large-scale modelling of salt water intrusion in 3D, Proc. 14th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, Malmo, Sweden.
download

Jelgersma, S., M. J. Tooley, G.H.P. Oude Essink, R.H. Boekelman, M.C.J. Bosters, W.J. Wolff, K.S. Dijksma, B.J. Ens, L. Bijlsma, R. Hillen, and R. Misdorp. 1993. Sea Level Changes and their Consequences for Hydrology and Water Management, State of the Art Report, UNESCO, IHP-IV Project H-2-2, 135 p.

Reports (in English)

Oude Essink, G.H.P., Van der Linden, W. 2005, Impact of the 26-12-04 Tsunami on groundwater systems and groundwater based water supplies, TNO report 2006-U-R-172/A, 19 p., Utrecht, The Netherlands.
download

Abstracts and Posters

  1. Autonomic and climatic impacts on the Dutch coastal groundwater system, AGU 2008
    Authors: Esther van Baaren and Gualbert Oude Essink Poster Abstract
  2. CLIWAT: a transnational project about climate change and coastal groundwater in the North Sea Region, SWIM 21 2010
    Authors: Gualbert Oude Essink, Perry De Louw, and many others! Poster Abstract
  3. Salinisation and freshening of phreatic groundwaters in Zeeland, The Netherlands: a modeling study, SWIM 21 2010
    Authors: Esther van Baaren, Perry de Louw, Gualbert Oude Essink Poster Abstract
  4. Netherlands Hydrological modelling Instrument for fresh and saline groundwater in the Dutch coastal zone, SWIM 21 2010
    Authors: Jarno Verkaik, Esther van Baaren, Joost Delsman and Gualbert Oude Essink Poster Abstract
  5. Analysis of Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Manila Bay: Density Dependent Hydrogeological Modeling of the South-eastern coastal zone of Bataan, Philippines, SWIM 21 2010
    Authors: Aileen Mirasol-Robert, Gualbert Oude Essink, Hans H. Dürr Abstract
  6. Uncertainty in end-member mixing: a blessing in disguise?, EGU 2012
    Authors: Joost Delmans, Gualbert Oude Essink Poster

Regional Workshop on Saltwater Intrusion Modeling & Implications of Sea Level Rise, July 23-24, 2014

Lectures Density dependent groundwater flow, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, 20, 24-25 June 2014

Download: Powerpoint presentation (in pdf format)
Download: Solution analytical exercises
Download: Word doc: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: PMWIN files: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: Word doc: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: PMWIN files: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: Word doc: Henry's problem
Download: PMWIN files: Henry's problem
Download: Word doc: Elder's case
Download: PMWIN files: Elder's case
Download: Lecture notes Density Dependent Groundwater Flow

Lectures Density dependent groundwater flow, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, 24-25-26 June 2013

Download: Powerpoint presentation (in pdf format)
Download: Solution analytical exercises
Download: Word doc: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: PMWIN files: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: Word doc: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: PMWIN files: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: Word doc: Henry's problem
Download: PMWIN files: Henry's problem
Download: Word doc: Elder's case
Download: PMWIN files: Elder's case
Download: Lecture notes Density Dependent Groundwater Flow

Lectures Density dependent groundwater flow, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, 14, 28, 29 June 2012

Download: Powerpoint presentation (in pdf format)
Download: Solution analytical exercises
Download: Word doc: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: PMWIN files: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: Word doc: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: PMWIN files: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: Lecture notes Density Dependent Groundwater Flow

Master Class Salt Water Intrusion, 27-29 July 2011, Can Tho, Vietnam

Download: Powerpoint presentation (in pdf format)
Download: Word doc: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: PMWIN files: Vertical interface between fresh and saline groundwater
Download: Word doc: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: PMWIN files: Evolution of a freshwater lens in a coastal area
Download: PMWIN files: Henry's case: salt water intrusion, case study
Download: Lecture notes Density Dependent Groundwater Flow

Density Dependent Groundwater Flow, Salt Water Intrusion

Description: Salt Water Intrusion and Heat Transport
Author: Gualbert Oude Essink
Lecture notes: Density Dependent Groundwater Flow

PART I Salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

1 Introduction
2 Characteristics of a density dependen groundwater system
-Chemical characteristics of water
-Equation of motion (Darcy’s law), continuity and solute transport
-Boussinesq approximation
-Brine groundwater
3 Freshwater head
-Introduction, horizontal flow and vertical flow
4 The concept of a fresh-saline interface
-Badon Ghijben-Herzberg principle
-Evolution of a freshwater lens in a phreatic aquifer
-Upconing of saline groundwater
-Effect of a relative sea level rise
5 Control of salt water intrusion
-Countermeasures to control salt water intrusion
-Monitoring of salt water intrusion
6 Numerical modelling
-Introduction
-Problems with 3D modelling of salt water intrusion
-Some computer codes, MOCDENS3D
6.5 Examples of numerical modelling with MOCDENS3D
-Vertical interface, saltwater pocket in a fresh groundwater environment
-Evolution of a freshwater lens
-Henry’s problem, Hydrocoin, level 1, case 5, Elder problem
7 Salt water intrusion in the Netherlands

PART II Heat transport in porous media: concept

8 Introduction
-Heat transport: conduction-convection equation
-Analogy of heat and solute transport
-Linear stability analysis
-Double-diffusive convection



Groundwater Modelling

Author: Gualbert Oude Essink
Lecture notes: Groundwater Modelling
PART I Modelling Protocol
1 Introduction
2 Classification of mathematical models
3 Methodology of modelling
4 Data gathering
PART II Groundwater Modelling
5 Introduction
6 Mathematical description of hydrogeologic processes
7 Solution techniques
8 Numerical aspects of groundwater models
9 Some selected groundwater codes

Homage Prof. Custodio:

artile: Salinisation of groundwater resources in the Dutch Deltaic Area: modelling, monitoring, Climate Change and Solutions

Animations: examples

Download:

Henry's profile with sea level rise

Download:
Dutch profile with extraction, upconing and low inland levels

Download:
Profile over 3D model: autonomous salinisation, sea level rise

Download:
The movement of island De Griend (The Netherlands) and the creation of the freshwater lens

Download:
Evolution of a freshwater lens

CRYSTECHSALIN

Download:
Proceedings Meeting 21-24 September 2002, Scanzano, Italy

G-EMMA is software written to facilitate end-member mixing analysis within a GLUE uncertainty assessment framework. 

G-EMMA has its own website: http://g-emma.deltares.nl/

general

Homepage Salt Water Intrusion Meetings

Saltnet

2014

2013

2012

2011

World Delta Summit, The Pulse of Deltas and the Fate of our Civilization, Jakareta Indonesia, 21-24 November 2011

2010

International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies CIHEAM course, 22-27 March 2010, Zaragoza, Spain, teaching Quantitative methods

21st Salt Water Intrusion Meeting 21-25 June 2010, Azores, Portugal

Deltas in Times of Climate Change 29 September- 1 October, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Presentation: Oude Essink GHP, Van Baaren ES, De Louw PGB, 2010, Effects climate change on coastal groundwater systems, focus on the Rhine Delta, Proceedings Deltas in Times of Climate Change, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Sept-Oct. 2010

Blog stream

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Student already contribute a number of years to our projects on fresh and salt groundwater in the coastal area. Sometimes with nice reports, sometimes with great results, article worthy! As such, this made that we are a strong supporter of guiding students through internships or thesises (both MSc and PhD)! We have already had students from Dutch universities (WUR, UU, VU), Universities of Applied Sciences (Zeeland, Larensteijn) and institutions like UNESCO-IHE. Foreign (PhD) students were welcome (Universities of Ghent, Florence, Bologna, Rome (La Sapienza)).

We have quite a few new topics, from numerical modeling to water system analysis using monitoring techniques. Just contact us, or the students below. Till hears!

|

New topics:

  • Feasibility Study The Coastal Collector
  • Vulnerability Study: Upscaling rainwater lenses throughout the Southwestern Delta:
  • Research on salinisation processes in the Brabant Delta: causes (deep) hydraulic head decline in North Brabant salinization?
  • Modeling of submarine groundwater discharge along an extended coastal stretch
  • 3D Modelling salt water intrusion in the Bengal area

info: gualbert dot oudeessink at deltares dot nl

PhD positions:

  • Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program: Coupling variable density numerical simulations with electrical resistivity techniques to assess coastal aquifer vulnerability to external stressors such as sea-level rise. USGS Menlo Park.

info: pswarzen at usgs dot gov or gualbert dot oudeessink at deltares dot nl

Examples past studies:

2005

  • Beatrice Giambastiani, Uni of Bolgona, Italy, Saltwater intrusion and water management in the unconfined coastal aquifer of Ravenna (Italy): a numerical model J. Hydrol. 340, 1-2, 91-104, 2007.

2006

2007

  • Bas de Veen en Sjors Stevens, VU Amsterdam, Monitoring campaign rainwater lenses in the province of Zeeland (in Dutch)
  • Corne Prevo, HZ University of Applied Sciences, Aquatische Ecotechnologie: Rainwater lenses in the province of Zeeland (in Dutch)
  • Francesco Sergi, La Sapienza, Roma, Italy, Salinisation processes in the Province of Zeeland, the Netherlands
  • Marian Koskamp, WUR, Model study of chloride concentration in soil moisture and shallow groundwater in a saline seepage system, draft report
  • Valentina Marconi, Uni of Bologna, Italy, Characterization of shallow fresh groundwater lenses in the Province of Zeeland with 2D geo-electrical surveys
  • Vesna Tripkovics, UNESCO-IHE, Salt water intrusion in The Province of Zeeland, the Netherlands - water system analysis and numerical modeling

2008

  • Tommaso Letterio, Uni of Firenze, Italy

2010

2012

2013, in process...

  • Marjan Sommeijer, WUR Wageningen, Identifying suitable locations for infiltration of fresh water in creek ridges
  • Jan Snel, WUR Wageningen, Oplossingen ten behoeve van zoetwatervoorziening voor de landbouw op Schouwen-Duiveland
  • Thomas Boerman, UU Utrecht, Fresh water lenses under creek ridges: a pilot study in Zeeland to increase fresh water supply
  • Mieke Hulshof, WUR Wageningen, Spatial scales in salinity modeling, case Waterdunen, Zeeland
  • Pieter Winter, Uni Gent, Belgium, Estimating flow patterns to an agricultural ditch by inverse modeling of temperature and salinity measurements

Course Groundwater in the coastal zone

18-20 September 2014, Delft – The Netherlands

download flyer for detailed information

| | !

Description:

The course will provide participants with (1) principles and procedures of variable density groundwater flow and coupled solute transport, (2) salinisation of groundwater systems and fresh-saline groundwater flow phenomena in the coastal zone, (3) monitoring techniques for fresh-brackish-saline water systems and (4) modelling experiences through hands-on training in computer workshops. On completion of this course the participants are able to understand, quantify and monitor groundwater flow processes in the coastal zone and to construct some (relatively simple) models on variable density groundwater flow and coupled salt transport. A fi eld visit to the south-western
part of the Netherlands will provide participants some field experiences in handling monitoring techniques to understand fresh-saline groundwater systems.

The following persons participate in the fresh-salt research on this wiki:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gu Oude Essink

 

Perry de Louw

 

Esther van Baaren

 

Joost Delsman

 

Jarno Verkaik

 

Pieter Pauw

 

Marta Faneca Sanchez

 

Martijn Visser

 

Sebastian Huizer

Gualbert dot OudeEssink at Deltares dot nl

 

Perry dot deLouw at Deltares dot nl

 

Esther dot vanBaaren at Deltares dot nl

 

Joost dot Delsman at Deltares dot nl

 

Jarno dot Verkaik at Deltares dot nl

 

Pieter dot Pauw at Deltares dot nl

 

Marta dot Faneca at Deltares dot nl

 

Martijn dot Visser dot nl

 

Sebastian dot Huizer at Deltares dot nl

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