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Coastal seas are the shallow shelf sea regions of the oceans. Driven by the (tidal) dynamics of the deep ocean, they are affected by the shallow water depth (generally less than 200 m) and the presence of the coast. They are biologically the most productive part of the ocean, as nutrients are imported from the land side and well up from the deeper ocean into the surface waters where there is sufficient light for biological productivity. Coastal seas are of great importance to fisheries, shipping, recreation and mineral extraction all around the world. They only comprise about 7% of the world’s ocean area, but due to their positioning they are the most influenced by human activity. The importance of these shallow regions is increasing as more and more people migrate to the coast.