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Atmosphere (weather and climate)

Precipitation: Rain is considered an important factor as it lowers the water salinity and stimulates optimal growth of the mangrove. Establishment of seedlings is more successful in low salinity regimes. Seasonal changes (monsoon) are linked to the fruiting season of mangroves. In arid regions sediments can reach hypersaline conditions which inhibit mangrove growth.

Light: Mangrove seedlings need light penetration in the water column to grow. This is not a limiting factor on a the tidal flat, but in a dense forest seedlings can only survive when a gap is created in the canopy (e.g. by lightning) (Krauss et al., 2008).

Temperature: Temperature on the mudflat can be high during low tide, due to direct solar radiation, and heat damage can occur above a certain temperature. Minimum temperature (i.e. freezing) can be an issue in areas outside the tropics (Krauss et al., 2008).