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Biosphere (all living organisms)

Propagules : Mangrove forests need to be in the vicinity to supply diaspores for natural mangrove establishment, if that is not the case artificial seeding/planting is necessary.

Bioturbation: Burrowing crabs, worms and other benthic organisms fulfil an important ecosystem engineering function for the mangrove trees, as their burrows aerate the soil and support flushing of salt. A healthy population of benthic fauna is therefore necessary (Stiglitz et al. 2000).

Pollination: If there is no pollination, there are no propagules available for natural mangrove establishment and rejuvenation of an existing forest. Habitat requirements (e.g. a certain size of the forest) have to be met to sustain the pollinator population (e.g. bats) (Tomlinson 1986, FAO 2006).

Barnacles: When sufficiently long submerged barnacles grow on the seedling, the seedlings become unstable due to the extra weight, resulting in increased mortality (Augsupanich and Havanond 1996).