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    Introduction

    Tools within Building with Nature are methods, concepts or strategies that can be used in the different phases and steps of a BwN project. These tools assist in applying a Building with Nature Design in a project in a practical way. In this guideline we focus on tools that have an added value for development and design. Some of these are or have been (further) developed within the programme; others have proven their applicability in the cases.

    In order to gain a clear overview of the available BwN-tools, we distinguish six groups which we assume intimately related to Building with Nature projects:

    • System analysis
    • Valuation
    • Interaction between interventions and ecology
    • Visualisation of data and modelling
    • Measuring and monitoring
    • Managing uncertainties

    In the following pages, these groups are concisely discussed. The tools themselves are mentioned, just as the phases in which these tools are generally applicable.

    Application of the tools should be seen as an iterative process, as the tools can be used in different detail in the various phases of a project. For example: a more general application of a valuation tool when generating alternatives and a more elaborate application to study the alternatives in more detail.

    For each tool, a general description is given, then there is a section on how to use the tool, followed by a description of a practical application. At the end of each tool, references are given for further reading. 
    It is important to point out that the use of a tool fits in a project approach. It is important to have a clear project vision before starting to use a tool. When you decide to use a certain tool, you should have a goal on what you would like to achieve by using this tool. After using the tool, the goal and the results should be compared and evaluated. In this way, the tool will contribute most to the project.

     

    System analysis

    Within Building with Nature it is essential to know the system in which one desires to operate. The tools within this group are all aimed at getting an overview of the different aspects of the project context: the physical environment (biotic and a-biotic), the socio-economic system and/or the governmental context. In BwN these are considered crucial prerequisites to enable identifying potential win-win solutions.

    The tools in this group differ in level of abstraction. Frame of Reference focusses on processes to link the end-user needs to knowledge development. DPSIR is a supportive framework assuming a causal link between drivers, pressures, state, impact and responses. System analysis explaines the system theory which can help in structuring complex problems. Ecomindmap is a framework that brings the system theory into practice, with the ecological system as starting point. The Stakeholder analysis tool assists in understanding the socio-economic system by mapping the stakeholders and their influence.

    Tool - Biogeomorphological Coastal Modelling System

    The biogeomorphological coastal modelling system comprises various generic modules, which were built using the open process library of Delft3D-WAQ. Four modules are available as the components of the entire system: A bed state module, a vegetation population dynamics module, a sediment transport module and a geomorphological bed updating module. The generic approach allows users to online-couple the biogeomorphological system to 1D, 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models like Delft3D-FLOW and D-Flow FM.

    Validation and initial applications of the system were aimed at coastal areas, but it can be a applied to any location where the interaction of simultaneous morphodynamic and ecological processes is relevant. The system relies on both new and existing knowledge.

    Tool - DPSIR

    The DPSIR framework is a supportive framework assuming a chain of causal links between Driving forces and the resulting environmental Pressures, on the State of the environment, on the Impacts resulting from changes in environmental quality and on the societal Responses to these changes in the environment. The framework helps to design environmental assessments, to identify indicators and to communicate results. It can be applied by a wide range of different users. 
    A thorough understanding of the system is vital to the design process of BwN projects. The DPSIR can be used to integrate socio-economic and ecological processes to understand the forces that drive patterns of ecosystem changes, both in scientific studies, as in policy processes.

    Tool - EcoMindmap

    In the philosophy of Building with Nature it is very important to know how the ecosystem, society and governance work at a location where an intervention is planned. Once the important processes in the these systems are known, they can be used in the design. This creates opportunities to add value to the design, especially because added value for nature will also mean added value for humans (see 'nature valuation').

    The Ecomindmap supports the process of 'getting to know the system'. The tool is a process guideline which can be used in the initiation phase of a project, before design alternatives are drawn up. It helps to structure the information on the ecosystem, the 'social system' and the ' governance system' in such a way that the most important relations become clear. Thus one can identify the focus of a project without overlooking processes which can be important to the design.

    The tool describes the process and gives guidance on the practical use of some auxiliary instruments.

    Tool - Frame of Reference

    The Frame of Reference method aims to structure the end user-specialist interaction in application oriented knowledge development settings. Key is to use the end user's information need as an explicit starting point for knowledge development and to continually match specialist research with the information need of end users. A core element of the method is the definition of fit-for-purpose quantifiable performance indicators. The tool is potentially useful in any situation where miscommunication may arise in interaction between interdependent actors, with different states of knowledge, working on different parts of the same overall problem. The method relies on logic and structure and may thus be used by anyone.

    Tool - Stakeholder analysis

    This tool offers a basic understanding of the relevance and contents of stakeholder-based approaches while pursuing Building with Nature in practice. It is of particular interest to professionals that have limited experience in how to involve stakeholders in project development and implementation. Experienced professionals tend to use similar frameworks on a subconscious level when managing projects. Being more explicit and structured in stakeholder analysis facilitates communication within project teams.

    Tool - System Analysis

    System theory is often used to structure complex problems. In the most general sense, system means a configuration of parts connected and joined together by a web of relationships. Throughout the EDD Guideline it is proposed that BwN solutions should be derived by taking the natural system as a starting point. There are many ways to structure the associated system analysis triggering all kinds of unnecessary confusion. This tool description provides some basic suggestions on how to approach system analysis in a Building with Nature context. It provides handles on how to define system boundaries, system elements and relationships. Relationships can exist between elements and the 'outside world' or system boundaries or between elements themselves. As a general rule of thumb any coastal management 'problem' needs to address the relevant natural subsystem, the relevant values/interests of user functions and the relevant system authorities involved. Addressing these elements in a coherent approach provides the best opportunity for a broadly supported solution.

    Valuation

    Valuation, both economic and non-economic, is indispensable in a BwN project. BwN concepts might be cheaper or more durable because they make use of natural dynamics or materials. Even if BwN solutions are more expensive, they can be favourable because they yield added values. Therefore it is crucial to consider the possible (added) values a project can yield from the start of the project on. Of course, this applies within the boundary conditions of the project itself (e.g. minimising flood risk to a certain level). In ́traditionaĺ projects (problem-solving approach) alternatives are taken into account first and subsequently their effects. In BwN project it is exactly the other way around. On basis of the results of valuation, emphasis is laid on the potential benefits for the different elements of the system and opportunities are found for added value to the system as a whole. When these are thoroughly addressed, alternatives can be identified (opportunity seizing attitude). Then again, the alternatives can be valued in more detail.

    Three tools in this group help in valuating nature aspects. With the nature index tool one assesses policy alternatives by awarding points to areas (hectares) of nature, depending on the quality of the nature area. The nature valuation tool helps in valuating non-financial benefits of nature in order to include them in a Socio-economic Cost Benefit Analysis (SCBA). The Monte Carlo tool describes a more formal probabilistic sensitivity analysis which can be used in a Social Cost Benefit Analysis.

    Tool - Contingent Valuation Method for Nature Valuation

    With a Socio-economic Cost Benefit analysis (SCBA) the balance between (financial) costs and benefits can be determined. The SCBA tool does not only include regular (read: financial) costs and benefits but also public goods like nature benefits and recreation aspects. A SCBA gives a strong argument to start a project when the benefits for society exceed the costs. So far nature services as bequest value are often only mentioned as ‘pro memori’ (pm) in SCBA because numbers for pricing nature services are lacking.

    Information on appreciation and price tags for nature services can be obtained by Contingent Valuation, a survey-based economic technique for the valuation of non-market resources, such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination. In this methodology people's willingness to pay is determined on via a hypothetical market mechanism.

    Tool - Monte Carlo simulation and Social Cost Benefit Analysis

    In the Netherlands, according to the EMVI-guideline (in dutch) an uncertainty analysis is mandatory in every socio-economic cost-benefit analysis (SCBA). For other countries having an SCBA guideline, the same holds true. The purpose of such an analysis is to determine the influence of uncertain assumptions on the balance (net present value) and ranking of the alternatives. In many SCBA's, the uncertainty analysis is executed in a rather informal way. With the tool presented here, a more formal probabilistic sensitivity analysis can be carried out, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The advantage of this method is that it will give insight in the cumulative effect of multiple uncertainties, including possible interactions between them. The cumulative effect is important for valuation of nature, because in nature valuation many entries in the balance sheet have rather large uncertainty margins. The formal sensitivity analysis yields information on which effects contribute most to total uncertainty. This insight can help decision makers in focusing efforts on issues producing the highest uncertainty.

    Tool - Nature index

    The Nature index tool quantifies the change in nature value as a result of interventions in a project area. The tool translates a nature value into nature points, with more points indicating a higher value. It requires four steps to determine the effect of a certain intervention on the number of nature points. The tool can be used when the feasibility of an intervention or project has to be demonstrated or when an (i.e. cost effective) alternative has to be chosen. Applying the tool requires ecological knowledge.

    Interaction between interventions and ecology

    The relation between an intervention in the environment and its effects on the ecology is important to consider within a BwN project. In most traditional projects the focus of the cause-effect relations is on the negative impacts the project has on ecology. In BwN projects the positive effects are very important as well: interventions can have numerous advantages and opportunities for nature and ecology. BwN strives to seize the opportunities for ecological development within a project.

    Two tools in this group focus on effect analysis of interventions in a probablistic way. One focuses on the link between the exposure level and the effect level of individual species. The other tool introduces the probablistic approach in the often used cause-effect chains. The Cumulative Effect Assessment tool helps in quantifying effects on the environment when more than one human intervention is planned. The tool 'Species response curves for seagrass' explains in the response of seagrass to environmental conditions and how these species response curves can be developed.

    Tool - Cumulative Effect Assessment

    The CUMULEO-RAM model, where CUMULEO is the name of the collection of cumulative models within IMARES and RAM stands for Risk Assessment for the Marine environment (Karman & Schobben 1995, Schobben et al. 1996, Jak et al. 2000, Karman et al. 2001), has been developed by IMARES (de Vries et al., 2011a&b). It is a methodology to quantify cumulated effects of human activities on the marine environment. The tool is unique in that it uses species-specific exposure-effect relationships to quantify and integrate potential effects. In theory, the method may be used to identify where, when and how an activity contributes to an effect. The potential applicability of the method for the dredging industry is presented and discussed below.

    The tool was developed with the aim to assist government and industry in identifying emissions with the highest impact to the environment, in order to prioritise possible emission reduction technologies. Application of the tool requires assistance of IMARES.

    Tool - Probabilistic analysis of ecological effects - Cause-effect chain modeling

    The quantification of ecological effects in Environmental Impact Assessments is mostly done by deterministic modelling of cause-effect chains. However, within these cause-effect chains, from construction process to the impact on species, habitats or ecosystems, a large number of uncertainties play a role. Part of them are inherent to natural dynamics, others are caused by a lack of knowledge on the relevant processes. In a deterministic approach, taking into account these uncertainties within the quantification of effects is not possible, so worst-case assumptions are needed to account for them. Often, the predicted impact is based on an accumulation of worst-case assumptions, which yields a highly conservative estimate with an unknown uncertainty margin.
    A probabilistic approach deals with these uncertainties in a different way. By using probabilistic computation methods it is possible to incorporate (part of) the relevant uncertainties in the modelling of the ecological effects. A probabilistic approach leads to insight into the probability of occurence of the possible effects, which is valuable information for ecological assessments.

    Tool - Probabilistic effect analysis - The Species Sensitivity Distribution

    The so-called Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) uses causal relationships between exposure level and effect level of individual species. By using exposure-effect data of multiple types of animals and plants, the sensitivity distribution of these species can be used to assess the risk of human interference more quantitatively. Although the SSD was originally developed to assess the ecological risk of toxicants, it also appeared to be applicable for non-toxic stressors. SSDs for assessing the risk of suspended clay-particles and sedimentation, for instance, have been developed specifically for the environmental impact analysis of offshore oil and gas drilling activities. One advantage of having SSDs for non-toxic stressors is that they can be easily combined with those of toxic stressors, resulting in a single impact indicator, although such combinations remain to be fully validated.

    Tool - Roughness module

    The roughness height of the bed is one of the most important and difficult parameters to quantify in order to model the sediment dynamics.

    In intertidal areas such as the Eastern Scheldt the bed roughness is not only influenced by abiotic factors (such as grain size, ripples and sand waves) but also by biotic factors (such as mussel beds, oyster reefs, diatom mats, lugworm fields and tube building worm fields) (Borsje, 2010). Diatom mats glue the sediment together and facilitate the deposition of fine sediment, resulting in a flat bed with a roughness height of several millimetres. Some biogenic structures like mussel reefs, oyster reefs and fields of tube building worms influence the roughness height directly. While other, such as lugworms, influence the roughness height indirectly. Lugworms excrete faecal matter on top of the sediment causing a topography of several centimetres.

    The bed roughness tool, a mathematical model, can be a useful instrument for hydraulic engineers to quickly set up a bathymetry with a variable roughness of the surface. The roughness tool was used to reproduce the hydrodynamics based on both physical and biological processes. In a simple 2DH model including mussels showed a reduction of flow velocity by 27%, which is in agreement with field measurements.

    Tool - Species Response Curves for Seagrass

    Reduced light penetration resulting from poor water quality is among the most significant of impacts threatening seagrass ecosystems worldwide. This tool explains in general terms how seagrass respond to environmental conditions and specifically to reduced light penetration. It is shown how species response curves can be developed using lab and field experiments. This tool is relevant for coastal managers and coastal engineers as to assess the potential consequences for seagrass ecosystems in response to coastal infrastructural works and to adjust and plan operations as to minimize potential negative ecological impacts.

    Visualisation of data and modelling

    Visualisation of gathered data is useful to structure the information and to gain overview of the situation. In the same time it offers means of communication. Modelling with the provided data provides ways to examine alternatives by means of trial and error in a ́safe setting’.

    The tools in this group are related to each other, except two. One tool is different from the other tools as it does not deal with visualisation of data, but of ideas. This is the tool 'Visual Thinking', this tool helps in applying BwN by making ideas and alternative designs visual via drawings. The sand-mud bed composition module is a model which calculates erosion and sedimentation processes due to measures or natural changes in the water bed.

    All other tools in this group help in visualising and using raw data and in using models and visualising the results. The figure on the right shows the connections between these tools. The figure shows the path from general databases and models to the user level. OpenEarth is an open source database that is generic and can be used in several ways, for example in combination with specialist models. The next level in the graph shows databases and models which use OpenEarth or are less generic than OpenEarth. Delft Dashboard is a graphical user interface supporting modellers to quickly set-up new or existing coastal models. The OpenEarth Viewer is a web application for visualizing data, models and tools in a Google Earth interface. Two tools that are made for making designs in an interactive way for a specific region in the world are the Interactive Coastal Design Tool - Holland Coast and the Interactive Planning Tool Dredging - Singapore. These tools help in modelling effects on the environment, using a database such as OpenEarth. MapTable is an interactive tool for design and decision support and has been developed to facilitate an open and interactive design process where multiple stakeholders with various backgrounds and fields of expertise together take part. The interactive tool can visualise geographic changes in, for example, a coastal zone, an estuary or a river bed.

    Tool - DelftDashboard

    Delft Dashboard is a (standalone) Matlab based graphical user interface developed by Deltares. It supports modellers to quickly set-up new or existing models anywhere in the world. A large number of coupled toolboxes allow for fast and easy model input generation. Setting up a model anywhere on earth with Delft Dashboard is a matter of minutes, whereas this used to take days or weeks before!

    Delft Dashboard is potentially useful for all modellers of surface water systems, especially in the initial stages of a modelling study. Also non-experts can quickly set-up a model to gain insight into the characteristics of their system of interest. Delft Dashboard gives access to global bathymetric, shoreline and tidal data, essential elements for almost every surface water modelling effort. Also more advanced features such as tidal analysis, simulation of wind speed and pressure drop by tropical cyclones and generation & propagation of tsunamis are supported by Delft Dashboard toolboxes.

    Tool - Interactive Design Tool - Holland Coast

    The Interactive Design Tool for the Holland Coast is a low-threshold interactive software application to give a first indication of the potential impacts of coastal interventions on coastline development. Users can draw coastal interventions (i.e. nourishments, groynes, revetments) on an interactive map and provide their specifications. An underlying model computes the impact on the time-development of the coastline. An indication of the potential impact on a number of coastal indicators, such as dune development, ecology, costs and recreation, can also be derived. The results are visualized in a Google Earth window, which shows the effects in both space and time. In this way, users can get insight into the consequences of interventions within minutes. The direct feedback provided by this tool makes it suitable to support live discussions on coastal strategies. Although the tool now focuses on the Holland Coast, the underlying framework (of interface, pre- and post-processing software and model) can be applied to coastal systems anywhere in the world.

    Tool - Interactive Dredge Planning Tool Singapore

    The Interactive Dredge Planning Tool (IDPT) is able to perform a rapid assessment of the expected, initial ecological effects caused by interactively defined dredging operations. For this, the IDPT makes use of rapid assessment dredge plume modelling, a database with computed hydrodynamic background conditions and a database with ecological information, i.e. locations, species and species tolerance information.

    Tool - MapTable

    MapTable is an interactive concept for design and decision support of development projects where hydrodynamics (water) and sediments and ecology play a major role in the design topic. The MapTable concept has been developed to facilitate an open and interactive design process where multiple stakeholders with various backgrounds and fields of expertise together take part. An interactive tool developed for the MapTable concept can visualise geographic changes in, for example, a coastal zone, an estuary or a river bed. The tools are based on simple but robust models which allow for a quick evaluation of different design alternatives and effects. During a meeting or workshop all participants are encouraged to take part in the design process to achieve the best possible alternative. It serves as a useful communication tool for involving stakeholders.

    The expression MapTable is in use for both hardware and software. MapTable software is an umbrella term for software that is suitable for use together with a digital design table. MapTable hardware (digital design table) can be used as an instrument in spatial planning processes. This Tool page focuses on explaining the MapTable concept and software, including spatial databases and models that can predict impacts of designs of construction works for these projects.

    Tool - Morphological predictor for mixed beds

    Changes in level and composition of the bed of surface water systems may affect both their economic and ecological functions. It is therefore often desirable to predict trends in bed level and composition due to human interventions or autonomous natural developments. This facilitates, for instance, a habitat assessment of future Building with Nature projects. A sand-mud bed composition module has been developed to predict of bed level and composition changes as computed from deposition and erosion of multiple sediment fractions. Depending on the mud fraction, the bed may behave cohesive or non-cohesive, resulting in different erosion behaviour. The bed module consists of multiple layers and may include mixing by bioturbation or bedform migration.

    The bed module is open-source and has been developed by Deltares. It is available both within Delft3D and as a stand-alone tool. For a quick assessment of potential bed level and bed composition changes due to human or natural changes of the environment, it can be run in 1D-mode. It is also applicable for a comprehensive 3D model study in the detailed design phase of a project.

    The intended users of the bed module are scientists or professionals with some affinity to sediment transport.

    Tool - OpenEarth

    OpenEarth is a community approach towards handling data, models and tools. It consists of a robust community of users collaborating from the philosophy that data, models, tools and information should be exchanged as freely and open as possible across the artificial boundaries of projects and organizations. To enable this it proposes an open source approach that fosters collaboration and continuous and cumulative quality improvement.

    The OpenEarth approach relies on a free infrastructure that is built from the best available open source components as well as a workflow that is based as much as possible on widely accepted international standards. Although every individual, department or company is free to set up a private version of this infrastructure, most benefits are provided by the open version that is supported by the sizeable OpenEarth community. There users can build on the preserved efforts from countless projects before them.

    Tool - OpenEarth-Viewer

    The OpenEarth Viewer is a web application for visualizing data, models and tools in a Google Earth interface. The set-up is such that data and models from different projects and cases can be viewed at the same time, which enables the user to see the interaction between different datasets and model results. A number of tools is available to perform (simple) actions on the data or run model simulations on the fly. Within Building with Nature (BwN) this application is used to provide an easily accessible overview of the information that is generated in the programme. However, the setup can also be used for data management in other projects.

    Tool - Turbidity Assessment Software

    The TASS-model (Turbidity ASsessment Software) aims to model the development of dredging-induced turbidity plumes arising from Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHD). The model enables the user to predict sediment release rates during dredging activities and thereby helps determine specific effects of dredging projects. The tool can be used specifically for development of turbidity caused by the discharge of sediment-laden water through the overflow of the TSHD. A first order assessment can be made by in-experienced users, but more detailed model usage requires expert knowledge on dredging methods,TSHDs and soil characteristics.

    Tool - Visual Thinking

    Visualization is the process of a visualizer transfering a concept or design to an image. Visualization supports the creative process by bringing one's ideas to life in a picture, thereby incoporating both verbal and visual thinking. This tool can be utilized by anyone and is particularly useful during concept development, brainstorming sessions and work sessions (e.g. courses or workshops).

    Tool - Wave Transformation Table

    The Wave Transformation Table is a look-up table to quickly obtain elementary wave parameters (i.e. significant wave height, peak period and direction) nearshore. This information can be relevant to any type of coastal and offshore engineering or marine ecology study in which waves are important, especially if nearby wave measurements are missing, too expensive or too time-consuming. The tool is available both as a web application and as a Matlab application. In its current (2012) state the look-up table is covering only the Holland Coast, but in principle the technique can be applied to nearshore areas anywhere in the world (provided that sufficiently long offshore wave time series are available).

    Measuring and monitoring

    BwN developed and applied several practical instruments to indicate, track and monitor a-biotic as well as biotic components over time. The information that is gathered with these tools helps in getting to know the system better and can be used for validating the assumed cause-effect-relations. Monitoring is also a necessary element of adaptive management strategies.

    The Argus biomonitoring tool presents a practical instrument to monitor, in high resolution, the biotic changes after taking measures on tidal flats. The fiber optical cable tool shows the application of these cables to measure and understand changes in morphology of the water bed better.

    Tool - Argus Bio monitoring station

    High-resolution monitoring of tidal flats is crucial for estimating the impact of nourishments and other engineering measures. This would require regular visits of project sites to assess e.g. changes in bed level, the number of birds and colonization by benthic animals or vegetation. Most tidal flats however are difficult to access, especially in more difficult - but no less relevant - weather conditions. Moreover, visitors inevitably disturb the site. 
    It would therefore be preferable to have a remotely-controlled and continuously operating monitoring systems to provide information about the development of intertidal areas. The ArgusBio station is such a system, combining proven Argus technology for the monitoring of (beach) morphology with novel high-resolution observation techniques for biota.

    Tool - Fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing for monitoring morphological changes

    The use of fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to measure morphological changes is a promising new technique. The challenge is to correlate high-resolution hydrodynamic measurements with changes of the bed topography, for data concerning the latter are usually acquired at intervals of several months at least. This measuring interval makes it difficult to pinpoint the hydrodynamic conditions which are driving morphological changes.
    Using fibre-optic DTS makes it possible to measure morphological changes on an hourly basis, thereby enabling to establish the correlation with hydrodynamic measurements. In addition, real-time monitoring of morphological changes makes it possible to act fast when too much erosion or sedimentation is taking place.

    Tool - Monitoring swimmer safety

    The website www.muienradar.nl provides daily predictions of swimming conditions for the beach of Egmond. he predictions are based on model computations of nearshore tidal, wind- and wave-driven currents. The prediction system provides lifeguards and beach visitors with information about the swimming conditions, with special attention to the occurrence of rip currents.

    Managing uncertainties

    In situations that lack complete or unique understanding of the system to be managed, several tools can be applied to gain more insight. BwN projects involve larger, more variable spatial and time scales, compared to traditional approaches. Due to its interdisciplinary approach many effects need to be taken into account. Also contextual factors such as weather conditions and ecological abnormalities cause uncertainties that we pursue to identify.
    After identification, the tools can also be applied in decision making on the flexibility to deal with uncertainties and moreover, to accept them.

    The tool 'Valuation of risks and opportunities' assists in identifying important risks in BwN projects and how to handle them in budgets. 'Visualising and managing uncertainties' is a tool which gives guidance on dealing with uncertainties in BwN projects. This tool helps in identifying different kinds of uncertainties and the way to cope with them.

    Tool - Valuation of risks and opportunities

    This tool is a framework that enables the analization and identification of important risks and opportunities while working towards the final design of a (BwN) project. The framework also indicates how to integrate risks in the costing of projects. It helps assessing the financial implications of different design alternatives taking into account different possible scenarios and related risks. The framework requires only limited background knowledge in costing and designing. Essential is that different disciplines (especially finance and design) work together in order to make more integrated assessments.

    Tool - Visualising and managing uncertainties

    This tool provides guidance on how to deal with uncertainty in (BwN) project development. In projects using BwN design principles, uncertainty can play a bigger role than in traditional projects, as unpredictable natural dynamics are proactively used in the projects' design.

    In this tool a classification of uncertainty is provided. Also strategies for dealing with specific types of uncertainty are suggested. The tool is meant especially for teams and managers developing BwN-type projects. No special skills are required.

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