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    Knowledge Topics

    Knowledge - Adaptive Management Strategy

    Considering the projected demographic changes in coastal zones and river beds there will be an increasing need for dredging globally. It becomes more important to be able to satisfactorily manage the positive and negative dredging impacts on the environment and their inhabitants. However, a growing number of uncertainties, degraded environments, (environmental) restrictions, stakeholders and factors increasingly co-determine the programming and execution of dredging projects.

    Most execution techniques, support systems and monitoring approaches accompanying dredging operations include process control and adjustments, and primarily focus on target compliance. Based on fixed knowledge they need clear thresholds to function. Furthermore, there is a severe lack of timely cause-effect knowledge and consequently “business as usual” seems not a viable option anymore.

    Consequently a need for an applicable, structured and true adaptive management approach, for the way marine infrastructure works are executed in the face of uncertainty has emerged, with the aim of reducing this uncertainty over time, via system monitoring: i.e., an approach that aims at closing the gap to what we know and what we should know.

    Knowledge - Aeolian transport and dune development

    Along the Holland Coast dunes have important functions in flood protection, recreation and as a habitat. The dynamics of coastal foredunes at timescales of years to decades (the engineering timescales) are characterized by alternating periods of erosion and accretion. Whereas coastal foredunes erode mainly due to marine forces, their accretion is mainly due to aeolian processes. Dune erosion is the most important failure mechanism of dunes as a flood defence system. Much research therefore focuses on predicting dune erosion, which has led to tools enabling quantitative prediction of this phenomenon. The capability to quantitatively predict dune accretion, however, is less established and predictive tools are still lacking. Although several models to predict aeolian sediment transport in desert-type situations are available, the complex physics on a beach are less well understood.

    This lack of quantitative knowledge on dune accretion makes it difficult to describe or predict the dynamics of dunes including both erosion and accretion. Moreover, where long-term data on the temporal and spatial development of dunes are available (e.g. the JARKUS dataset of the Dutch coast), measured behaviour is difficult to reproduce.

    The research described herein aims to "identify and quantify the processes governing the development of coastal dunes at the engineering timescales" by analysing collected morphological and process data and formulating a conceptual model.

     

    Knowledge - Artificial Reefs

    A reef is a shallow strip or ridge in the sea, ocean or other water body that rises to or near the water surface. This strip can consist of rocks, sands, corals or non-natural materials. Many reefs have emerged naturally, but others have not. The last type is called artificial reef (AR); a human-made underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of increasing marine life, but more reasons are known.

    Reefs are important factors in water bodies. As the majority of sea beds and the ocean floor are empty and seem featureless, reefs are the exceptions. Reefs are structures containing hard substrate on which plants and coral larvea can find surfaces to root and which create shelter for fish life and crustaceans. Reef structures also affect the water movement, as they can reduce the energy level, which forms calmwater and thus good shelter. It also creates extra turbulence at some spots and may increase concentrations of small animals such as plankton. Subsequently, fish and other marine animals find shelter and food on the reefs. So, a healthy reef forms a complex habitat for marine flora and fauna and usually showing great biodiversity.
    A second effect that reefs have is on hydrodynamics. A reef breaks the wave energy and movement of water currents. So, the waves that crash onshore will be affected by the reef. Interrelated, a reef affects the transport of sediments between the reef and the coast.

    Thus, reefs are an important factor in the eco-system. They are known for their biodiversity and productivity and are, as such, popular spots for divers and fishers, both recreational and commercial. However, the extensive use of reefs has had its impact on the existing natural reefs. Many of them are struggling, especially with the sea water temperature rising, which kills coral and related species. Humans have always used the reefs, for commercial and recreational reasons and to the enhance of their advantage, they have created artificial reefs for many years.

     

    Knowledge - Biogeomorphological effects of nourishments in The Netherlands

    The sandy shores of The Netherlands are maintained by supplying sand to the beaches and the upper shoreface. To enable predicting future states of beach ecosystems, and to contribute to the development of effective and sustainable nourishment practices, knowledge on ecological and morphological processes is essential. As these two aspects of the environment are mutually dependent, understanding how they influence each other is an absolute necessity. A literature review has been conducted, with focus on the macrozoobenthos in and on the sediment on the shoreface and in the surf zone. Results are described in Baptist et al. (2008) from the integrated perspective of the disciplines geomorphology, ecology and biogeomorphology. The latter is the study of the interaction between geomorphological processes and biota (Baptist, 2005).

     

    Knowledge - Cause-effect chain modelling Sand-mining - Mussels

    Every year large amounts of sand are extracted from the North Sea to meet the demand for construction and nourishment activities. Potential ecological effects of these sand mining activities have to be examined and reported in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). A secondary environmental effect of sand mining is an increase in fine sediment concentrations. Increased concentrations of fines can affect water quality by increasing turbidity and changing the relative composition of organic and inorganic particulate matter in the water column and by reducing primary production by limiting light penetration. Many bivalves are filter feeders that are capable of continuously filtering food and other particles out large volumes of water. Indigestible or excess material is egested as pseudofaeces. If an impact assessment is to be made of the possible effects that an increase in the concentration of fines could have on bivalve populations, extensive knowledge of how such concentrations influence life history parameters of the bivalves is essential. In this case the effect of suspended sediment concentrations on the activity of filter feeding bivalves (e.g. clearance, ingestion, pseudofaeces production and growth) is studied. Deterministic models are presented to describe the effect of various suspended sediment concentrations on the model species chosen, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

     

    Knowledge - Cause-effect chain modelling - Sand mining - Sandwich terns

    In the Netherlands, the potential impacts of sand mining activities on populations of Sandwich Terns often form an important topic in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). Sand mining causes an increase in water turbidity, which may affect populations of visually hunting birds such as terns. 
    The quantification of ecological effects in EIAs is mostly done by deterministic modeling of cause-effect chains; a highly conservative approach with an unknown uncertainty margin. A probabilistic approach to the quantification of the possible ecological effects may be an alternative. 
    The objective of this case study is to explore how and to what extent a probabilistic approach can be applied to the quantitative modeling of the potential effects of sand mining on tern populations. As an example, the probabilistic methodology is worked out for the effects of a fictitious dredging project on a population of Sandwich Terns.

     

    Knowledge - Ecosystem services

    Humans have always benefited from a wide range of resources and functions provided by natural ecosystems. Such natural benefits, which may be provided as goods (e.g. fish, gravel) or services (e.g., clean water provision), are collectively known as ecosystem services.

    In the present Knowlegde page an overview is given of possible ecosystem services. In addition, links are provided to pages concerning their valuation. This page provides a general introduction to ecosystem services.

     

    Knowledge - Interaction between tidal basins and ebb-tidal deltas

    During the last century, major engineering works have been carried out in the Dutch coastal system, for flood defence and / or land reclamation purposes. Among these engineering works, two of the tidal inlets in the Dutch Wadden Sea and three of the estuaries in the south-west delta were entirely closed off, partly reclaimed or semi-closed (i.e. separated from the sea by a movable storm surge barrier). These works have impacted the development of the (semi-) enclosed basins themselves, but also the adjacent coast and tidal basins. On this knowledge page, we focus on the development of the south-west delta.

    By influencing the large-scale morphological development and sediment budget, the closures have their effect on the need for coastal maintenance. From a coastal dynamics point of view, tidal basin, ebb-tidal delta and adjacent coast together form a sediment sharing system. The combined sediment deficits and/or surpluses of the elements determine if after the intervention the tidal inlet or estuary will be a sediment source or sink.

    On a smaller scale, closures influence the development of channels, intertidal flats, saltmarshes and other morphological elements inside the basin. Especially the effect on the morphological development of the ecologically highly productive intertidal flats affects the ecosystem. With their relatively large and food-abundant intertidal area, estuaries like the Eastern Scheldt play a crucial role in the East-Atlantic Flyway for bird migration.

    Understanding the morphological processes in the estuary is therefore of crucial importance. With that understanding, we can better comprehend and predict the effects of environmental change (Climate change, accelerated sea level rise) and human activities. This will help us safeguarding accessibility, naturalness, productivity and safety of the estuary for the future.

     

    Knowledge - Managed Realignment Schemes

    Controlled inundation of land by setting back sea defences is an increasingly used method for coastal protection and anticipation to climate change. In the United Kingdom this so-called “managed realignment” is applied widely and considered a cost-effective and sustainable response to loss of biodiversity and sea level rise. It is also applied in other countries such as the United States, Germany and Belgium.

    By re-inundating land the coastline is placed backwards and new intertidal area is created. The area is enclosed by a secondary dike on the landside to ensure safety of the hinterland. The goal is to create the right circumstances for succession of saltmarsh vegetation. Once saltmarshes develop the vegetation will enhance sedimentation and the area will become higher and is able to grow with sea level rise. Saltmarshes can reduce wave energy and improve the stability of the dike.

    Managed Realignment can be applied to many different situations that fall within the scope of coastal and flood management. Succes is also dependend on local boundary conditions. It is important to be clear on the aim and purpose of the proposed project at the beginning. Without this it may be difficult later to determine the success/failure of the scheme in meeting its objectives. It is also important at the outset of a project to identify any potential opportunities and/or constraints. Managed Realignment presents the opportunity for a variety of benefits, though such opportunities may also have associated constraints.

    Picture: Trimley Marsh Managed Realignment Site

     

    Knowledge - Mussel Seed Capture Installations

    Certain coastal waters of the Netherlands, e.g. the Waddenzee and the Delta area, have a great ecological value. This value is expressed by the protection of these areas by European law (Nature Conservation Act or the European Birds and Habitats Directive). Mussel seed fishery in these areas may impede with these laws. To reduce the impact of the mussel seed fisheries on wild mussel beds mussel seed capture installations (MZI) (Dutch: MosselZaadInvang installatie) are developed. At the moment the musselfarmers are in a transition process from fishing seed to collecting seed. The aim is that in the long term the MZI installations can supply the mussel seed which is needed for mussel cultivation.

    An EDD approach of using MZI's can be found in the EDD Case - Harbouring Opportunities. In this case MZI's are used to create ecological value (biomass) in the port of Rotterdam with an additional function of water filtering.

    Knowledge - Scenario development for a long-term vision

    Scenarios can be a useful tool to explore the opportunities for (Bulding with Nature) measures on the long-term and the large-scale. In particular the development of extreme scenarios can give insight in the limitations of measures and allow a valuation of measures in time and extent.

    In this knowledge page an introduction is given on the report 'Sustainable scenarios for the Southwest Delta based on Building with Nature strategies'.

    Knowledge - Sediment and ecology in delta lakes

    Many shallow lakes in delta areas across the globe are characterized by a deteriorating water quality. This knowledge page gives background information on this change and provides insight into Building with Nature interventions to influence sedimentation and ecological processes.

     

    Knowledge - Systems Thinking

    This knowledge page presents experiences with the use of system thinking and system diagramming in the Building with Nature programme. The construction of a jointly agreed system representation helps to cross discipline boundaries and to see the big picture. Also, such a system representation facilitates sharing and comparing differences in opinions, values, histories, interests, etc. in relation to the design requirements. Moreover, learning is facilitated by monitoring changes in real life and adapting the representation of the system to the monitoring results. The aim of this knowledge page is to discuss the contribution of systems thinking to ecodynamic design processes.

    Title Candidate
    BwN in multi-level governance: the issue of Bird and Habitat Directives  Vera Vikolainen
    The Feasibility of Building with Nature in Local Arenas  Menno Smit
    Coping with uncertainty in water engineering projects embracing natural dynamics  Ronald E. van den Hoek
    Knowledge in building with nature projects  Stephanie Janssen
    Understanding eco-dynamic designing in different governance settings  Dorien Korbee
    Modelling the ecological potential of sand extraction  Maarten de Jong
    Meso scale dune and beach development and nourishment  Sierd de Vries

    Fine sediment dynamics in Markermeer

     Miguel De Lucas Pardo
    Interaction of submerged vegetation and fine sediment Bastiaan van Zuidam
    Biotic response to Environmental Change  Santiago Alvarez Fernandez
    Morphodynamic modelling of tidal estuaries  Nicolette Volp
    Dynamics of biotic and abiotic interactions. Exploring the spatial dimension of resilience  Ingrid van de Leemput
    Modelling biota-mud interactions in estuaries  Francesco Cozzoli
    Budget modelling of fines in the Dutch coastal zone  Carola van der Hout
    Morphological changes by large scale interventions  Matthieu de Schipper

    Modeling TSHD Overflow Plumes

     Lynyrd de Wit
    Connectivity beyond biodiversity Are physical fluxes important?  Lucy Gillis
    The role of ecosystem engineers in the ecomorphological development of intertidal habitats  Brenda Walles
    Morphodynamic coupling between estuary and outer delta  Menno Eelkema

    BwN Course material

    The Building with Nature programme develops course material addressing a number of topics that are relevant in the Eco-dynamic Development and Design workflow. The course material is presented in the form of 'Tutorials' that are designed to promote groups to practice with a given topic in the form of a hands on excercise or workshop.


    Tutorial - Understanding the system (step 1)

    The first step in the Building with Nature design is to understand the system in which a project is planned. In depth knowledge of the physical system (biotic and a-biotic), as well as the socio-economic system and the governance context are crucial to identify potential win-win solutions. The system to be considered depends on the project objectives. It is important to remember to look for user functions beyond those covered by the primary objective. This can be done by deriving information about the system at hand, from various sources like local knowledge and delving into historical records.

    Basic workflow for understanding the system is the following. After deriving the primary objectives of the project the three systems are investigated to determine win-win solutions. Several tools are available, like ecomindmaps. The results of this fase are input for the next steps.

    Tutorial - Identifying realistic alternatives (step 2)

    Once the systems are understood realistic al-ternatives have to be identified and further de-tailed to assess their practical feasibility and economic viability. This tutorial provides a num-ber of practical steps to follow in this process. As such it is the next step after the tutorial Un-derstanding the system. Valuation and selection of the so-developed realistic alternatives is ad-dressed briefly. This topic is treated more in-depth in subsequent tutorial.

    Basic workflow for Identifying realistic altera-tives is the following. First operational objec-tives are defined as a subset of the strategic project objectives. After that a functional analy-sis is done. This results in various building blocks that are able to fulfil all the objectives. These objectives are combined to aggregate packages of one or more building blocks.

    Tutorial - Valuation and selection (step 3)

    When one or more realistic alternatives have been developed they need to be (e)valuated to enable selection. This tutorial provides a number of practical steps to follow in this process. As such it follows naturally the tutorials for Understanding the system and Identifying realistic alternatives. How to ensure that the selected alternative will make it into the next BwN Design steps is addressed in a subsequent tutorial.


    Basic workflow for valuation and selection is the following. After assessement of the baseline case the construction cost of each of the detailed design alternatives can be quantified. Quantification of the benefits is done by first outlining each alternative's physical impacts followed by establishing their welfare impacts. Here the concept of ecosystem services plays an important role. Analysis of the cost benefit balance will indicate whether a second iteration is needed. A sensitivity analysis will help to select the best solution.

    Tutorial - Elaborating selected alternatives (step 4)

    Once, after a careful process of developing alternative solutions, the valuation and selection process has been completed, a next step in the design process is to consider the conditions and restrictions provided by the project. Make sure that an innovative idea is optimized so that it may actually be constructed. Take execution aspects into account (workmethods, availability of equipment, etc). Identify important timing aspects (growing seasons, closed seasons, time for ecological components to evolve to desired state, etc.)
    Help the project to tell the story. If you have proceeded to implement an innovative idea make sure that you tell your story to the project team, the stakeholders and the public. Think of access routes to a project, guided excursions, informa-tion panels, press releases etc.

    This tutorial discusses all the aspects varying from contract matters to involvement of the public. This is possible by using existing examples.

    Tutorial - Preparing solution for implementation (step 5)

    Once the selected alternatives are eloborated the last step for the particular fase is to handle the practical bottlenecks to get the solution included in the next phase on the road to realisation: inclusion in request for proposals, inclusion in the detailed design, inclusion in the project delivery, inclusion in maintenance and monitoring scheme. This means in translation of the solution in a technical design, proposals or contracts. Also funding has to be raised and requirements for permits identi-fied. A risk analysis shouldbe prepared as well as contingency plans.

    All these aspects are discussed in this tutorial.

    Tutorial - Building with Nature Design

    In order to create opportunities for Building with Nature a paradigm shift is needed to unlock new and challenging greener solutions. For BwN projects it helps to widen the project scope by aiming for multiple objectives. Greener projects do often have benefits for other functions as well such as nature, recreation and other ecosystem dependent functions.

    This tutorial on Building with Nature Design outlines how to best organise a creative process aimed at generating conceptual BwN designs. First the BwN philosophy is introduced. Second the BwN Design principles and the BwN Design steps are explained which form the core of the design process. These design steps are treated more in-depth in separate subsequent tutorials. The last three pages present general presentations, examples of BwN projects and lessons learned regarding workshops.

    Tutorial - Eco-dynamic Design (Conceptual)

    In order to create opportunities for Building with Nature a paradigm shift is needed to unlock new and challenging greener solutions. For BwN projects it helps to widen the project scope by aiming for multiple objectives. Greener projects do often have benefits for other functions as well such as nature, recreation and other ecosystem dependent functions.

    This tutorial on Eco-dynamic Development and Design outlines how to best organise a creative process aimed at generating conceptual BwN designs. The Five steps form the core of this tutorial. Students are challenged to experiment with the first two steps mainly. Further detailing, valuation and selection of the so-developed conceptual designs are addressed briefly only. These topics are treated more in-depth in subsequent tutorials.

    Tutorial - OpenEarth

    OpenEarth as a whole (philosophy, user community, infrastructure and workflow) is the first comprehensive approach to handling data, models and tools that actually works in practice at a truly significant scale. It is implemented effectively not only at its originally founding organizations Delft University of Technology and Deltares but also in a number of sizeable research programs with multiple partners (such as the 28 million euro 4-year research program Building with Nature - 19 partners from 1 country) from multiple countries (such as the 4.6 million euro 3-year EU FP7 research program MICORE - 15 partners from 9 countries). For data, models and tools that are truly strategic and really cannot be shared, OpenEarth stimulates the setup of internal OpenEarth clones. This way the OpenEarth workflow can still be adopted, promoting collaboration within the organization, while taking care of security considerations at the same time. This tutorial introduces the basics of OpenEarth. It explains the basics of how to setup the OpenEarth infrastructure and provides information on how to best use its components.

    Tutorial - Using the wiki

    This wiki tutorial is intended for aspiring wiki users in any project that has embraced the OpenEarth philosphy to handle data, models, tools and knowledge. While it was developed as course material for the Building with Nature Introductory Wiki Training Course this tutorial provides sufficient information for selfstudy (become a wiki user in under 30 minutes!).

    Program References

    Here are three sections

    1. External programs
    2. Other Handbooks & Manuals
    3. Literature

    1. External Programs

    This section contains other research or engineering programs executed by other organizations that have topics in common with Building with Nature. These programs often include researches and/or projects that can be used as input for the BwN researches, the EDD manual and/or the case studies. The explanation and list of BwN keywords can be found here.

    Singapore Delft Water Alliance (SDWA)
    Author/organization: National University of Singapore (NUS)
    Involved parties: NUS, Deltares, TMSI, University of Twente, TU Delft, WUR
    Location: Singapore
    Date: 2007 - 2011
    Status: conceptual phase
    Field of Study: Climate change , Coastal development , Coral , Dams and reservoirs , Dredging technology , Ecological studies , Ecology - fish/shellfish , Ecology - marine animals , Ecology - plants , Environmental impacts , Environmental monitoring , Habitat creation , Hydrologic studies , Impact assessment , Mangrove , Marine spatial planning , Morphologic studies , Nature creation , Risk assessment , Sea grass , Silts and sediments , System dynamics , Valuation of nature , Water quality , Wetland development
    Short Description:  
    EDD Aspects:  
    BwN keywords Valuation of nature/ eco-system , Sustainable development , Building by nature , Building of nature , additional environmental values , BwN paradigm shift
    Non BwN keywords Environmental monitoring , Impact mitigation , Nature restoration , Environmental cleaning , Environmental protection , Environmental compensation
    Website www.sdwa.nus.edu.sg
    ComCoast
    Author/organization: EU Interreg North Sea
    Involved parties:  
    Location: North Sea
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development
    Short Description: A coastal development program of the five countries bordering the North Sea. It contains implementation of integrated coastal zone management; aiming for a paradigm shift of a single defense line to a multifunctional zonal defense. Those defenses should integrate safety, sustainability, attractiveness, economic and environmental aspects. Knowledge and guidelines are given on 1) mapping and planning, 2) stakeholder participation, 3) technical solution and 4) evaluation techniques. In the program a number of pilot projects are executed in the different countries.
    EDD Aspects: The EDD principles that can be found in this program include the aim for a paradigm shift in the type of coastal defense which includes an integrated design. Also most pilots projects do include building of nature in terms of new marsh lands or even building with nature when flooding of areas take care of raising the foreshore level by gradual sediment deposition.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Building by nature , Building of nature , BwN paradigm shift
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.comcoast.org
    Greenshores
    Author/organization:  
    Involved parties: Bridge Coastal Legacy Fund, BC Ministry of Environment, BC Real Estate Foundation, Comox/Strathcona Regional District, District of Squamish, Ducks Unlimited, Environment Canada - Eco Action, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Habitat Conservation Trust Fund, Sunshine Coast Regional District
    Location: Canada
    Date: 2008 -
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development
    Short Description:

    The Green Shores project is designed to encourage sustainable use of coastal ecosystems through planning and design which recognizes the ecological features and functions of coastal systems. The conceptual vision for Green Shores is a voluntary assessment/certification process for shore developments, similar to the LEED certification system for buildings. In addition, Green Shores is providing support for the development of sample bylaw and zoning language to assist local and regional governments to enshrine the key principles of Green Shores in land use regulations. The Green Shores project is conducting specific pilot projects/case studies that showcase alternatives to conventional coastal shore development.

    Green Shores enables project planning and design that connects people with the shore environment, delivers triple bottom line (environment, social and economic) benefits and recognizes that site specific, cost effective solutions can only be achieved by using an integrated design approach.

    EDD Aspects:  
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Valuation of nature/ eco-system , Sustainable development , BwN paradigm shift
    Non BwN keywords Environmental protection
    Website www.greenshores.ca
    Lousiana Coastal Protection & Restoration
    Author/organization: LA Office of CP&R
    Involved parties: Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection & Restoration, CPRA, Office of Governor - Coastal Activities, OCPR, CWPPRA, USACE
    Location: US
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development , Ecological studies , Estuary protection , Risk management , Use of dredged materials , Wetland development
    Short Description: A site presenting different organizations and programs on the topic of coastal protection and restoration of the Louisiana coast. Part of the organizations are administrative organizations responsible for the legal and funding aspects of the projects. Projects as referred to are on ecosystem restoration and monitoring. It is not clear if all proposed actions are being implemented.
    EDD Aspects: Efforts are made to work with nature rather than fighting against it.
    BwN keywords Sustainable development , Governance of EDD , Building by nature
    Non BwN keywords Traditional design (vs Ecodynamic design) , Impact mitigation , (Beneficial) Use of dredged material , Environmental protection
    Website www.coastal.la.gov
    Klimaatbuffers
    Author/organization: Coalitie klimaatbuffers
    Involved parties: ARK Natuurontwikkeling, De12 Landschappen, Natuurmonumenten, Staatsbosbeheer, Vogelbescherning Nederland, Waddenvereniging, Wereld Natuur Fonds
    Location: Netherlands
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Climate change , Coastal development , (Is)land reclamation , Riverine development , Silts and sediments
    Short Description: Klimaatbuffers (climate buffers) are parts of the country where land can be elevated in a natural way, when sediment is transported and deposited by sea or river; or in other cases, dried land is prevented from sinking by regulating the water level. Examples are coastal areas where the sea moves sediments to shore; or where regulation of rain water drainage can prevent sandy areas from washing away. Moreover, both solutions help shape the flood protection. The program includes over 30 different project sites in The Netherlands.
    EDD Aspects: The projects of klimaatbuffers use the natural development of sedimentation and erosion to control the level of land, so, it includes building by nature. Moreover, it is stated that the new areas are not only positive for environmental and safety issues, but can also bring recreational and economic advantages.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Valuation of nature/ eco-system , Building by nature
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.klimaatbuffers.nl
    Integrated Coastal Zone Management Program
    Author/organization: European Commission
    Involved parties:  
    Location: EU
    Date: 1996 - 2007
    Status: completed
    Field of Study: Coastal development , Governmental issues
    Short Description: Many European coastal zones encounter issues with the environmental, social-economical and cultural sources of their coasts. The detoriation of the coastal zones have led to many EU-policies on coastal development. The ICZM program, as initiated by the European Commission, aims at introducing an integral approach and planning to develop the European coastal zones. From 1996 to 1999 a demonstration program was executed. 35 demonmstration projects and 6 studies were executed to gain insights in the possibilities of coastal zone management and to initiate a broad discussion and awareness within Europe. 2000 to 2006 the individual countries executed their national projects with support of the ICZM program including a number of tools. After 2006 a review was conducted.
    EDD Aspects:  
    BwN keywords Sustainable development , Governance of EDD
    Non BwN keywords Environmental protection
    Website www.ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/home.htm
    Waterinnovatie
    Author/organization: Rijkswaterstaat
    Involved parties: Rijkswaterstaat, Deltares
    Location: Netherlands
    Date: 2007 -
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Climate change , Environmental management , Hydrologic studies
    Short Description: 'Waterinnovatie' is a program by the Dutch government to stimulate and accelerate innovations on the challenges of water management. They experiment with new theories and techniques, invite organizations to cooperate on new innovations and attempts to explore new and innovative routes. Motives are on social, economical and environmental (caused by climate change) aspects. The themes of innovations in the program are: drought, sustainability, hydro energy, eco-engineering enhances safety against flooding, more with water, levees and water management.
    EDD Aspects:  
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , BwN paradigm shift
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.rijkswaterstaat.nl/water/innovatie_en_onderzoek/index/
    The US Coastal Zone Management Program
    Author/organization: NOAA
    Involved parties: US Department of Commerce - National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration
    Location: US
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development , Estuary development
    Short Description: The US Coastal Zone Management Program works with all US coastal states to protect, restore and develop the US coast. The CZM Program is focused on balancing the often competing demands of coastal resource use, economic development, and conservation. The National CZM Program includes prioritizing of high hazard areas and coordinating state and federal actions and comprises coasts and estuaries.
    EDD Aspects: This program includes an integral approach to enhance the environmental, economical and social aspects of the US coast.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.coastalmanagement.noaa.gov/czm/czm_act.html
    Levende waterbouw
    Author/organization: Deltares
    Involved parties: BAM, Ecoshape, C-fix, Deltares, DHV, Ecoconsult, Havenbedrijf Rotterdam, Fryske Gea, Heijmans Infra/Breijn, Programmabureau Noordwaard, Provincie Friesland, Rijkswaterstaat, Robbert de Koning, TU Delft, Vandermeerconsulting, Van Schaik BV, Wageningen Imares, Waterschap Friesland, Noordwaard Deltateam
    Location: Netherlands
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development , Dikes and dams , Ecology - fish/shellfish , Ecology - plants , Estuary development
    Short Description: To reach a sustainable solution for the Dutch deltas and to protect the Dutch land against the water, solutions are sought in ecosystem engineering. Ecosystem engineering is the use of strength of the ecosystem, including plants and animals, to manage water in the deltas. 'Levende Waterbouw' is a program which includes researches and a number of pilot projects in which ecosystem engineering is applied.
    EDD Aspects: Levende waterbouw is a clear example of Building by Nature, as plants and animals are used in the design.
    BwN keywords Building by nature , BwN paradigm shift
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.levendewaterbouw.nl
    Vlaamse baaien 2100
    Author/organization: Vlaamse baaien 2100
    Involved parties: Arcadis, AT&M, Jan de Nul, DEME, IMDC, ORG
    Location: Belgium, coast
    Date: 2010 - 2020
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development
    Short Description: To protect the Belgian coast from the rising water level, the program of ´Vlaamse Baaien´ is initiated. Aim is to recreate the wider and softer coast, as it was in the past. Moreover, the program includes an integral approach where safety, natural, recreational and economical values are emphasized. The program contains both short term as long term projects.
    EDD Aspects: The program is focused on finding a sustainable solution where nature can develop and will shape a solid coastal protection.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Building by nature
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.vlaamsebaaien.com
    Plan Tureluur
    Author/organization: Ministerie van LNV
    Involved parties: Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit
    Location: Netherlands, Oosterschelde
    Date: 1992 -
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Nature creation
    Short Description: The flood barriers of the Oosterschelde as constructed in the 20th century do not meet full requirements. The left water-space appeared to be insufficient to host the different users as nature, recreational and fishery users. Because the lack of current through the Oosterschelde the fairways were silting up and kwelders and mut flats were disappearing. Because of positive experiences in the Flevopolder a solution was found in the creation of nature. ´Plan Tureluur´ includes 44 various projects along the shore of the Oosterschelde. Important success factor in the project is the early involvement of farmers who traded their land to give back space to nature.
    EDD Aspects:  
    BwN keywords  
    Non BwN keywords Nature restoration , Environmental protection
    Website www.minlnv.nl/txmpub/files/?p_file_id=14965
    Multiple lines of defense strategy
    Author/organization: OurCoast
    Involved parties:  
    Location: USA, Louisiana
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development , Estuary development , Wetland development
    Short Description: The Multiple Lines of Defense Strategy is a program that focuses on the integration of coastal restoration and flood protection of the Louisiana coast. The aim is to protect the coast against hurricanes and to sustain the coastal estuaries. The concept includes the premise that coastal wetlands and barrier islands shape a natural protection buffer. The projects are focused on parts of the coast that have shown strong development of wetlands and resilience. Parts, where heavy loss has occurred, are ignored as chronic causes might hinder the success of the project.
    EDD Aspects: The MLoDS combines natural and safety values in the design of the projects. Moreover, natural processes are used to restore the wetlands and to create a natural buffer against hurricane floods.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Building by nature , Building of nature
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website http://www.saveourlake.org/PDF-documents/MLODSreportFINAL-12-7-08with-comments.pdf
    Ruimte voor de Rivier
    Author/organization: Ruimte voor de Rivier
    Involved parties: Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat
    Location: Netherlands
    Date:  
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Riverine development
    Short Description: The program 'Ruimte voor de Rivier' (=Space for the River) contains 39 projects in the Dutch river basins of the Rhine and part of the Meuse. The aim of the program is to protect the Dutch land against floods due to the water level rise. Simultaneously the program aims at increasing the quality of the river area in economical, ecological, infrastructural and cultural aspects. The various projects differ on the measures taken, but main aim is to give land back to the water by f.e. moving dikes or dredging of extra river branches.
    EDD Aspects: The project's aim is to improve both social, economical and ecological value of the area; with this integrated design extra environmental value is added.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , additional environmental values
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl/
    Zwakke Schakels
    Author/organization: Rijkswaterstaat
    Involved parties:  
    Location: Netherlands, coast
    Date: 2004 -
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Coastal development
    Short Description: In order of the 'Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat' the Dutch coast is tested whether the coast forms sufficient coastal protection. In 2003, because of new testing methods and with the expected water level rise, 10 areas of the Dutch coast are pointed out as 'Zwakke Schakels' (= Weak Links). Eight of them have the priority to be improved before 2020.
    Six out the ten Weak Links are situated in Zuid-Holland and two in Zeeuws Vlaanderen; each Weak Link is a separate project within the program. The provincial and local authorities are responsible for the execution of the projects. Aim of the projects in to both increase safety as attractiveness of the Dutch coast. Each project asks for a individual solution. Solutions are found in dune and dike widening and beach replenishment.
    EDD Aspects: Social, economical and ecological professionals have to work together to create best solutions; the natural value of the coast is recognised.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , Valuation of nature/ eco-system
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.kustvisiezuidholland.nl/kustvisie.html
    Maaswerken
    Author/organization: Rijkswaterstaat
    Involved parties:  
    Location: Netherlands
    Date: 2005 - 2020
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Riverine development
    Short Description: The aim of the project is to protect the Meuse river against flooding, to improve the navigational route and to create a more natural shoreline by creating new natural areas. From 2005 to 2020 different projects are executed along 222 kilometers of the Meuse. Most projects have a large impact on the shoreline and the surrounding areas.
    In part of the program gravel mining for the contruction market is used to finance the projects.
    EDD Aspects: The Maaswerken include environmental projects to compensate some of the measures and to create extra natural areas. Examples are that small pieces of natural area are connected into a larger one and handed over in care of nature organizations and the use of dredged materials to create fertile land.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , additional environmental values
    Non BwN keywords Environmental compensation
    Website www.maaswerken.nl
    Nadere Uitwerking Rivierengebied (NURG)
    Author/organization: Ministerie van LNV
    Involved parties: Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit, Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat
    Location: Netherlands
    Date: 1991 - 2015
    Status: in operation
    Field of Study: Habitat creation , Riverine development
    Short Description: Realisation of 7000 hectares of nature in the marsh land of the Rhine and the embanked parts of the Meuse. Program is part of the Dutch policy to oppose the decrease of nature areas in The Netherlands. The flood plains of the rivers are bought up by the government and turned over to nature organizations. Next to the added environmental values, the projects also increase the safety and possibilities for floods.
    EDD Aspects: The main objective of the program is to create environmental value; by using a integral approach the program also increases safety and creates recreational areas for people.
    BwN keywords Integral approach on PPP aspects , additional environmental values
    Non BwN keywords  
    Website www.minlnv.nl/portal/page?_pageid=116,1640949&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&p_document_id=110237&p_node_id=7344553&p_mode=

     

    2. Other Handbooks & Manuals

    In the field of civil engineering many handbooks and manuals are written. The handbooks and manuals listed here are meant as inspiration on content, context and form for the BwN program and manual. The explanation and list of BwN keywords can be found here

     

     

    Title Author Location Date Field of Study BwN keywords
    Environmental handbook for building and civil engineering projects. Part 2: construction CIRIA   2000 Environmental management  
    Impact mitigation
    Environmental handbook for building and civil engineering projects. Part 1: design and specification CIRIA   2000 Environmental management  
    Impact mitigation
    Environmental handbook for building and civil engineering projects. Part 3: demolition and site clearance CIRIA   2000 Environmental management  
    Impact mitigation
    Coastal and marine environmental site guide CIRIA   2003 Coastal development , Environmental impacts , Environmental management  
    Traditional design (vs Ecodynamic design) , Impact mitigation
    Scoping the assessment of sediment plumes from dredging CIRIA   2000 Dredging technology , Environmental impacts , Environmental monitoring Adaptive project management 
    Environmental monitoring , Environmental protection
    NSW coastal zone management manual Department of ECC Australia, Newcastle 2007 Coastal development Integral approach on PPP aspects , Governance of EDD 
     
    Environmental guidelines for reclamation in coastal areas EPA Australia 2006 Coastal development , Environmental impacts , (Is)land reclamation  
    Impact mitigation
    Key principles for ports and harbour development IADC     Environmental impacts , Harbor development  
    Impact mitigation
    Guidelines for integrated coastal zone management J.C. Post; C.G. Lundin   1996 Coastal development , Governmental issues Integral approach on PPP aspects , Sustainable development , Governance of EDD 
     
    Coastal zone management handbook John R. Clark   1995 Coastal development Integral approach on PPP aspects , Governance of EDD 
    Environmental monitoring , Impact mitigation
    Shoreline Management Guidelines Karsten Mangor - DHI Denmark 2004 Coastal development , Environmental impacts , Environmental management , Estuary protection , Impact assessment , Marine spatial planning , Morphologic studies Integral approach on PPP aspects , Sustainable development , Governance of EDD , Building by nature 
    Environmental protection
    Framework for a national cooperative approach to integrated coastal zone management NRMMC Australia 2006 Coastal development Valuation of nature/ eco-system , Sustainable development 
     
    International guidelines for the management of dredged material OSPAR North-East Atlantic 2004 Environmental management , Storage of dredged materials  
    Impact mitigation , Safe storage of dredged material
    Ecological and engineering guidelines for wetlands restoration in relation to the development, operation and maintenance of navigation infrastructures PIANC   2003 Coastal development , Harbor development , Navigation , Wetland development Integral approach on PPP aspects 
    Impact mitigation , Nature restoration , Environmental compensation
    Guidelines for sustainable inland waterways and navigation PIANC   2003 Environmental management , Governmental issues , Navigation Integral approach on PPP aspects , Sustainable development , Governance of EDD 
     
    Environmental management framework for ports and related industries PIANC   1999 Environmental management , Governmental issues , Harbor development Sustainable development 
    Impact mitigation
    Dredged material management guide PIANC   1997 Environmental management , Use of dredged materials  
    (Beneficial) Use of dredged material
    Beach Dunes: a guide to managing coastal erosion in beach/dune systems Scottish Natural Heritage UK, Scotland 2000 Coastal development Integral approach on PPP aspects 
    Impact mitigation
    Environmental engineering for coastal shore protection USACE USA 1989 Coastal development , Environmental management  
    Environmental monitoring , Impact mitigation , Environmental protection
    Environmental engineering for local flood control channels USACE USA 1989 Channel dredging Integral approach on PPP aspects 
    Impact mitigation
    Environmental engineering for deep-draft navigation project USACE USA 1987 Channel dredging , Environmental management , Harbor development , Navigation Integral approach on PPP aspects 
    Environmental monitoring , Impact mitigation , (Beneficial) Use of dredged material
    Wetlands engineering handbook USACE USA 2000 Wetland development  

     

    3. Literature

    Many researches and cases cannot be categorized as clear examples of BwN, however, they might give interesting input. Hereunder a selection of articles and project that might be of interest. The explanation and list of BwN keywords can be found here.

     

    Title Author Location Date Field of Study BwN keywords
    Ten years of experience in combining ecology and navigation on Dutch waterways Boeters et al. Netherlands 1997 Ecology - plants , Navigation , Riverine development Integral approach on PPP aspects , additional environmental values , BwN paradigm shift 
     
    Sedimentation: Potential biological effects of dredging operations in estuarine and marine environments DOER US 2005 Environmental impacts , Environmental management , Silts and sediments  
     
    Larval fish feeding responses to variable suspended sediment and planktonic prey concentrations DOER US 2004 Ecology - fish/shellfish , Silts and sediments  
     
    Rates and effects of sedimentation in the context of dredging and dredged material placement DOER US 2005 Ecological studies , Environmental impacts , Silts and sediments  
     
    Assessment of potential impacts of dredging operations due to sediment resuspension DOER US 2000 Ecology - fish/shellfish , Estuary development , Silts and sediments  
     
    Environmental aspects of dredging IADC   2008 Dredging technology , Environmental management Sustainable development 
    Working around environmental values , Environmental protection
    Bird habitat management in ports and waterways PIANC   2005 Ecology - birds , Environmental management , Harbor development , Navigation Integral approach on PPP aspects , BwN paradigm shift 
     
    Dredging material as a resource PIANC   2009 Use of dredged materials  
     
    Dredging management practices for the environment PIANC   2009 Dredging technology , Environmental impacts , Environmental management Integral approach on PPP aspects , Valuation of nature/ eco-system , Sustainable development , Governance of EDD 
    Impact mitigation , (Beneficial) Use of dredged material , Safe storage of dredged material
    Environment matters at the World Bank: valuing coastal and marine ecosystem services World Bank   2009 Valuation of nature  
     
    Environmental considerations for port and harbor developments World Bank   1990 Environmental management , Harbor development

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