|Networks||Regulatory context||Knowledge context||Realization framework|
Pahl-Wostl and others (Pahl-Wostl 2006; Pahl-Wostl, Craps et al. 2007) refer to social learning as the parallel learning about content as well as about actors and institutions. They apply a framework for social learning in which multiparty collaboration is the core of a participatory decision making process. Multiparty collaboration is embedded in a specific context, which in turn is influenced by the outcomes of the process of social learning. The context consists of the governance structure and of the natural environment and technologies. The governance structure refers to the both the formal as well as the informal (cultural) rules and regulations. (Pahl-Wostl, Craps et al. 2007) The outcome of social learning maybe either relational or technical. Relational outcomes are for example relating to the capacity of a stakeholder group to cooperate or relating to institutional change. Technical outcomes relate for example to the state of the environment, but also includes the technical design of a structure. Relational practices are the places where social learning occurs, meaning that strategic and institutional learning are linked to cognitive learning. (Pahl-Wostl 2006) The framework of social learning is depicted in the figure below.
Framework for social learning, adapted after (Pahl-Wostl 2006; Pahl-Wostl, Craps et al. 2007))