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Atmosphere (weather and climate)

UV radiation: High intensities of UV radiation can cause coral bleaching. The initial stages of pigment loss reduce energy available to the coral; severe bleaching may result from prolonged exposure or acute exposure to high intensities and corals may not recover.

Precipitation: A natural impact of precipitation (rainwater) is acidification on reefs as it usually has an pH of 5.6 to 5.8, the exact pH of rain varies due to its origin. Indirect short-term effects of precipitation include decrease in salinity and input of nutrients, sediments and other pollutants (e.g. agricultural/horticultural chemicals).

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